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The website of Author/Writer and Psychic Medium Astrid Brown. Making the most of 'YOU' i.e. how to achieve well-being and beauty from within ourselves. A truly holistic blog providing information on all aspects of psychic mediumship, spiritualism, philosophy, holistic therapies, nutrition, health, stress, mental health and beauty with a little bit of Wicca for good measure. Feeling and looking good is as much a part of how we feel inside as the outside.

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I am a great believer in Karma, but just what is it? Karma comes from the Sanskrit and ancient Indian Language with the underlying principal that every deed in our lives will affect our future life. For example, if we treat others badly during our lifetime we will have negative experiences later on in that lifetime or in future lifetimes. Likewise, if we treat others well we will be rewarded by positive experiences.

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All Holistic therapies are excellent at dealing with stress and since the choice is vast you can be sure to find one that will suit you


Holistic therapies are my forte and I began studying Complementary Therapies (same thing as Holistic) many, many years ago. Note I use the word Complementary and not Alternative, for these therapies used be used as an adjunct  to conventional medicine, thus complementary too and NOT instead of.  I had an orthodox nursing background so it took me sometime to get my head around to a holistic belief but complementary therapies intrigued me. Conventional medicine tends to pigeon hole each ailment and doesn't view the body as a whole after all the word "Holistic" means "mind, body and spirit". 

My interest goes back 30 years ago and it began with Homeopathy, suffering myself with minor ailments, like migraine, indigestion and dysmenorrhoea, I decided to look and try something else as conventional medicine looked at each ailment on its own but I came across Homeopathy purely by chance when I was in a health food shop buying vitamins when I came across a small paperback book on Homeopathy from then on I was hooked, it led me on visit a Homeopath myself, I felt during that initial consultation, that here was someone who knew and understood me, who didn't laugh when I said hot foods made me feel better and windy weather made me feel unsettled and importantly saw the link between stressful situations and my migraine. Which funnily enough the migraine attacks happened not during the stressful situations but always afterward when the stress was past. The Homeopath taught me all my ailments were all linked to the one type of constitution I had.  This was to become an important challenge and period in my life, it led me into decades of study of numerous holistic therapies.

To be continued.............


Origins of Homeopathy, the word “Homeopathy” is derived from two Greek words meaning “similar suffering”. History tells us that it was the Greek physician Hippocrates, who, in the fifth century, first wrote of the medical practice of treating like with like. So far as is known he was the first doctor to treat an illness with a substance that produces, in a healthy person, similar symptoms to those displayed by the person who is ill. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the principle “similia similibus curentur”, (let likes be cured by likes), was quoted by many physicians, including Paracelsus, often regarded as the ‘father’ of holistic medicine. Homeopathy is therefore not new but the form we know today is attributed to Dr. Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (1755 - 1843), a German Physician who in 1796 prove his "Law of similars". The basic principal  of homeopathy is "Let like be cured by like". There is no scientific proof as to how Homeopathy works and although individual trials have positive results, some researchers have suggested this is down to a placebo effect. However that argument falls down when it comes to work on animals and many vets use homeopathy on animals.

Homeopathic remedies are prepared by serial dilution, the term used for this is called succession, (succession means shaken)  this is known as potentisation. For example  the original solution, known as a mother tincture and one example is a plant or herb, though homeopathic remedies are made from a variety of substances, and the herb is placed in a solution of alcohol. This is left to potenize  and the liquor strained off and this is known as 'Mother Tincture'. In the "C" system of potency or '100', one drop of this mother tincture is placed with 99 drops of alcohol and succussed and this makes '1C'. To make 2C, one drop of 1C is added to 99 drops of alcohol, succussed and this makes 2C and so on some remedies go on being diluted well into the millions e.g. 2M. The medicines are often given in tablet form, though they can be powders or even applied topically as in a cream. To make the tablets/powders a few drops of the appropriate remedy tincture is added to a bottled or phial of lactose tablets/powder and these pills are to be allowed to dissolve in a clean mouth, that is a mouth not tainted with strong flavours such as mint or coffee as they would neutralise the effect of the remedy as homeopathic medicines are very gentle and delicate. Generally 30 mins should have elapsed since eating etc.

Homeopathy works on an energy/vibrational level and treats the whole person i.e. holistically and not just a specific disease or symptom but takes into account of how the patient is feeling mentally, emotionally as well as physically. The homeopath taking the case will want to know, if the weather affects the condition in anyway, does food for example does eating cold food make the patient feel worse or better and taking a case history a patient can expect an hour long consultation as the homeopath is looking for the correct remedy to match the homeopathic drug picture. The homoeopath, views the symptoms as a direct manifestation of the body’s attempt to heal itself therefore a substance is given capable of producing similar symptoms if given to a well person. Homeopathy does not treat diseases but, rather, individuals with specific symptom pictures.

Homeopathy do not have side effects as they work in a totally different way from orthodox medicine however if a remedy is not quite right the patient could end up proving a remedy, where symptoms may show up but no harm will come to the patient. Occasionally, on first taking a Homeopathic medicine, the symptoms become worse. This is one of the "Laws of Cure" and called an ‘aggravation’, and should be regarded as a good sign as it shows that the remedy is working you should stop taking the remedy until the aggravation has passed and only resume if necessary. Aggravations are most common with skin disorders, as the body “throws out” the disease. Higher potencies work at a much deeper level. Occasionally patients may exhibit symptoms of conditions suffered prior to condition under treatment, or their symptoms may manifest in other parts of the body. For this reason only trained homoeopaths should prescribe high potencies because only they can properly monitor such situations. Other users should limit themselves to the 6th and 30th potencies. When you think about how homeopathic medicines are made in effect it can be quite difficult to ascertain how they do work for when the remedies are succussed theres no actually remedy in the solution especially when it comes down to the very high potencies. There are different theories to how this may be one is that the liquor used in making the remedies retains a memory or the original substances and this is transmuted in an energy.

The "Laws of Cure" from a more important organ to a lesser one i.e. an internal organ to external like the skin, from above down i.e. from pains in the abdomen the pain travels down the legs to the feet then out of the body. And ailments in reverse order, symptoms from old ailments may manifest themselves before leaving the body. You will feel better in yourself, even though you are still suffering from the ailment and the aggravation, where the ailment worsens before getting better.

Homeopathic remedies are made from a large variety of substances minerals, plants and animal substances and the first stage in making a homeopathic remedy is to 'prove' it. The original homeopathic remedy was 'proved' by Hahnemann. Homeopathic medicine, as we know it today, was produced by Dr. Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (1755 - 1843). He was a doctor who, after qualifying in 1779, soon became disenchanted with medicine as it was practised at that time. Hahnemann advocated much that is far from revolutionary nowadays: proper diet, regular exercise and improved social conditions. He was also very concerned about large doses of noxious substances that were prescribed as medicines.

In 1790 Hahnemann became interested in an eminent Scottish doctor’s explanation as to how a Cinchona Bark extract worked to cure ague, or malaria as we know it today. Cinchona Bark, having been used for centuries in South America for the treatment of malaria, was introduced into Europe by missionaries and was proving successful. The Edinburgh doctor, William Cullen, accredited this success to its toning action on the stomach. Hahnemann did not agree, and was prompted to undertake an experiment on himself. As a healthy person he took a substantial dose of Cinchona Bark extract and found that he developed symptoms similar to malaria, the very disease the drug was used to treat. Hahnemann then went onto test many other substances in this same way; administering doses to healthy people, noting the symptoms that developed - and then using the substance to treat a disease when the substance picture matched that of the “poison” picture.

Many of the substances Hahnemann used were indeed highly poisonous, and this prompted him to spend many years experimenting in order to find the smallest possible effective dose. He eventually developed the method of “potentising” the starting substance, and, by administering infinitesimally small doses, he found that he not only cured without undesirable side effects but also that the curative properties were enhanced. Such was Hahnemann’s success, particularly with endemic diseases, that Homeopathy quickly spread throughout Europe and across to America. Dr. Frederick Harvey Foster Quin introduced Homeopathy into Great Britain in the late 1820’s and 1849 founded the London Homeopathic Hospital. Homeopathy is recognised by Act of Parliament and widely accepted as a safe alternative form of medical treatment. It is practised by fully qualified doctors who are recognised by the General Medical Council and homeopathic medicines are available within the National Health Service.


Homeopathy is my first love when it comes to Holistic medicine as was the first Holistic therapy that took me on my journey first as a student, then practioner and then lecturer in this field. So when it comes to ailments this is the first place I look. The beauty of Homeopathy is that it is so safe and gentle with no side effects. As you read about individual medicines, you would notice that homeopathic medicines are multipurpose and each of them covers wide range of symptoms. Polycrests particularly cover lots of symptoms that belong to various diseases. That is why homeopathy is capable of effectively treating most of the diseases. The point to note is that when a medicine is selected for a particular set of symptoms, it is not necessary that the person would have or should have all the symptoms indicated under that medicine. At times even key symptoms would only be considered but generally overall picture of the symptoms is considered to make the selection giving special importance to key symptoms. This rule is applied particularly in chronic cases. In acute cases, the methodology is somewhat different. However, each practitioner has own ways of doing it and maintains his own list of medicines


Aconitum Napellus
Sudden appearance of complaints. Extreme restlessness. Great fears (specially of death). Anxiety. Influenza. Dryness of mouth, throat and skin, with intense thirst for cold water. Anxious dreams.
Arnica Montana
Traumatic injuries. Pain from overuse of an organ. Fetid breath. Violent spasmodic cough. Angina pectoris. Small boils. Thrombosis. Tinnitus. THE REASON I HAVE IT HERE IS IF YOU CAN USE ACONITUM NAPELLUS IN THE FIRST INSTANCE WITH ALL COMPLAINTS IT CAN PREVENT THINGS BECOMING WORSE. IT IS ALSO GOOD FOR ANXIETY/FEAR
Puncture wounds, traumatic nerve pain, stings and bites the kind of pain where it feels like you've hit your thumb with a hammer. I HAVE IT LISTED HERE FOR IT IS PARTICULARLY GOOD FOR SEVERE NERVE TYPE OF PAIN ASSOCIATED WITH CUTS/WOUNDS

Excessive irritability and impatience specially in children. Violent earache. Diarrhea of children during dentition. Tickling cough. Rheumatic pains. PARTICULARLY WITH THE KIND OF DULL ACHING PAIN YOU CANNOT BEAR
Great lowness of spirit. Dread of death when alone. Fatty degenerations. Scurvy. Vertigo of the aged. Dandruff. Falling of hair. Hemorrhages. Cirrhosis of liver. Glaucoma. Epistaxis instead of menses. Vomiting soon after taking water, nausea after anaesthetic,  Hoarseness. Various respiratory problems. LISTED HERE BECAUSE ITS PARTICULARLY GOOD AT ALLEVIATING NAUSEA AND VOMITING AFTER ANAESTHETIC
Soothing and healing, helps tissue regeneration and helps prevent and fight infection, soothes after bites and stings, stinging nettles. SPEEDS UP HEALING, REDUCES THE LIKELIHOOD OF INFECTION.
For fractures there are a couple of other remedies such as Bellis Perennis for deep bruising Symphytum officinale commonly known as knitbone for obvious reasons as it is a particularly good remedy for assisting healing of fractures


The information given in these pages is for general knowledge only. This information does not constitute a medical advice nor is meant to suggest a medicine for your health condition. For selection of correct medicine, dose and potency, consult your doctor.



What are Bach Flower Remedies? Well they are a very gentle and natural remedy for dealing with stress. They were devised by Dr. Edward Bach he studied medicine first in Birmingham and later at the University College Hospital, London, where he was House Surgeon. He also worked in private practice, having a set of consulting rooms in Harley Street. As a bacteriologist and pathologist he undertook original research into vaccines in his own research laboratory.

In 1917 Dr Bach was working on the wards tending to soldiers returned injured from France. One day he collapsed and was rushed into an operating theatre suffering from a severe haemmorhage. His colleagues operated to remove a tumour, but the prognosis was poor. When he came round they told Bach that he had only three months left to live.

As soon as he could get out of bed, Bach returned to his laboratory. He intended to advance his work as far as he could in the short time that remained. But as the weeks went by he began to get stronger. The three months came and went and found him in better health than ever. He was convinced that his sense of purpose was what saved him: he still had work to do.

Homoeopathic research

His research into vaccines was going well, but despite this Dr Bach felt dissatisfied with the way doctors were expected to concentrate on diseases and ignore the whole person. He aspired to a more holistic approach to medicine. Perhaps this explains why, not being a homoeopath, he took the offer of a post at the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital. 

Once there he soon noticed the parallels between his work on vaccines and the principles of homoeopathy. He adapted his vaccines to produce a series of seven homoeopathic nosodes. This work and its subsequent publication brought him some fame in homoeopathic circles. People began to refer to him as 'the second Hahnemann'.

The flower remedies

Up to now Bach had been working with bacteria, but he wanted to find remedies that would be purer and less reliant on the products of disease. He began collecting plants and in particular flowers - the most highly-developed part of a plant - in the hope of replacing the nosodes with a series of gentler remedies. 

By 1930 he was so enthused by the direction his work was taking that he gave up his lucrative Harley Street practice and left London, determined to devote the rest of his life to the new system of medicine that he was sure could be found in nature. He took with him as his assistant a radiographer called Nora Weeks. 

Just as he had abandoned his home, office and work, Dr Bach began to abandon the scientific method and its reliance on laboratories and reductionism. He fell back instead on his natural gifts as a healer, and more and more allowed his intuition to guide him to the right plants. 

Over years of trial and error, which involved preparing and testing thousands of plants, he found one by one the remedies he wanted. Each was aimed at a particular mental state or emotion. He found that when he treated the personalities and feelings of his patients their unhappiness and physical distress would be alleviated naturally as the healing potential in their bodies was unblocked and allowed to work once more.

His life followed a seasonal pattern from 1930 to 1934: the spring and summer spent looking for and preparing the remedies; the winter giving help and advice to all who came looking for them. Most winters were spent in the coastal town of Cromer. Here he met and became friends with a local builder and healer, Victor Bullen.

The Bach Centre

In 1934 Dr Bach and Nora Weeks moved to a house called Mount Vernon in the Oxfordshire village of Brighwell-cum-Sotwell. In the lanes and fields he found the remaining remedies that he needed to complete the series. By now his body and mind were so in tune with his work that he would suffer the emotional state that he needed to cure and try plants and flowers until he found the one that would help him. In this way, through great personal suffering and sacrifice, he completed his life's work. 

A year after announcing that his search for remedies was complete, Dr Bach passed away peacefully on the evening of November 27th, 1936. He was only 50 years old, but he had outlived his doctors' prognosis by nearly 20 years. He left behind him several lifetime's experience and effort, and a system of medicine that is used all over the world.

He left his work in the hands of his friends and colleagues Nora Weeks and Victor Bullen, with instructions that they should carry on his work and stay true to the essential simplicity of what he had done. In a letter to Victor dated 26th October 1936, a month before his death, he wrote:
"People like ourselves who have tasted the glory of self-sacrifice, the glory of helping our brothers, once we have been given a jewel of such magnitude, nothing can deviate us from our path of love and duty to displaying its lustre, pure and unadorned to the people of the world."
Nora and Victor stayed true to those ideals of simplicity and sharing, as does the Bach Centre today.

"Healing with the clean, pure, beautiful agents of nature is surely the one method of all which appeals to most of us"
- Dr Edward Bach, 1936

INFORMATION SUPPLIED © copyright 2009 The Bach Centre


The 38 remedies are divided into seven emotional states and are prescribed for each individual:

Fear (Rock Rose, Mimulus, Cherry Plum, Aspen, Red Chestnut)

Uncertainty (Cerato, Scleranthus, Gentian, Gorse, Hornbeam, Wild Oat)

Insufficient interest in present circumstances (Clematis, Honeysuckle, Wild Rose, Olive, White Chestnut, Mustard, Chestnut Bud)

Loneliness (Water Violet, Impatiens, Heather)

Those over-sensitive to influence and ideas (Agrimony, Centaury, Walnut, Holly)

Despondancy and despair (Larch, Pine, Elm, Sweet Chestnut, Star of Bethlehem, Willow, Oak, Crab Apple)

Over-care for welfare of others (Chicory, Vervain, Vine,Beech, Rock Water)

There is one composite remedy which is often used:

Rescue Remedy
This contains five of the 38 remedies and as the name would suggest, it is the remedy for emergencies and calming in traumatic situatuions such as visiting the dentist, before an exam, after a shock


There are various methods to induce a meditative state, some like to focus on something, such as the breathing or candle flame, but no matter which method is used, it is beneficial as it has be proven to reduce blood pressure, and reduce activity in the nervous system, namely by invoking the parasympathetic nervous system. Breathing slows and becomes deeper and more efficient, the heart rate slows down and as regards the brain it has been researched that even a small course of meditation strengthens connections between regions of the brain that regulate our emotional responses. In effect meditation has the opposite effect on the body as does Stress.

MEDITATION 1. (A guided meditation)


When you start to develop psychically it is essential to have good mind control, this is because and if you have read earlier articles by me, you may find yourself being harassed by lower entities and possibly souls who are trapped in the Astral Plane. The Astral Plane is where we go when we are asleep. When you start to open up psychically its akin to having a flashing beacon above your head and these lower entities will home in on you for they know you are inexperienced and will cause mischief. Remember nothing can possess you nor take over your body nor harm you in anyway however they can give you a fright. As you develop stronger you will need to develop mind control in order that you can open up at will psychically  and close down so you are not disturbed and one of the ways we do this is by Meditation and Visualisation.

Before beginning your meditation ask that your guides look after you and protect you.

The following is an example of a routine, you can do this in a group with other like minded souls or you can record yourself reading out the following accompanied by gentle soft music. You will need a comfortable chair one that is upright so that your feet also touch the floor. Your spine should be straight to allow Universal energy through the chakras and both feet need to be firmly on the floor.

" I want you to focus on your breathing take some slow deep breaths, and loosen your shoulders and have your hands loosely placed on your lap. Gently close your eyes. Now breath in slowly through your nose and out via the mouth but make your out breath slower than your in breath do this a few times. Anything that pops into to your head, any worries, don't ignore it but rather acknowledge them and put them to one side all the while focusing on your breathing, slowly in through the nose and ever slower out the mouth. With every breath you take you find your shoulders dropping and you become more and more relaxed. Should anything pop into your head again acknowledge it and come back to focussing on your breathing.

Now I want you to visualise there is a tiny white light just above the crown on your head, it does not matter if you cannot see this, just accept there is and know this is so. Visualise with every breath you take the light becomes brighter and brighter, its a pure bright sparkling light and gradually that light gets bigger and brighter. Now imagine your body is made of glass and from now on every breath you take you breathe in this pure white and sparkling light going all the way from the crown of your head to each toe. The light is pure and cleansing and you become more and more relaxed and at ease. All the while breathing in slowing and allowing the pure white and cleansing light  to fill up your body.

When your body is completely full of this pure white light visualise the light becomes brighter and slowly fills up the room in which you are sitting from the floor all the way up to the ceiling. You are full of bright white light, surrounded in pure white light and feel light and cushioned and wrapped up in white light, you feel relaxed and at ease. Knowing you are protected and loved by spirit. Remember to come back to your breathing should your mind start to wander.

When the room is entirely full of this pure white light imagine you are floating and cushioned and protected by the white light you begin to rise on the chair you are sitting being carried high and higher by this pure white light out through the roof of the building in which you were sitting. Higher and higher you go, protected loved and surrounded by the white light focussing on your breathing rising higher into the sky high above the white clouds you drift allowing the white light to carry you to the most wonderful place of peace and tranquility. You feel relaxed and loved carried by this wonderful light.

Gradually the white light gently takes you to what appears to be a door of the most opulent building, there is a gentle breeze, the door is open and you know it is safe to go inside. You feel totally at ease, it feels like you have come home, there is a certain familiarity about this place. You walk up the three steps slowly and you go inside, the ceiling is high and it is light and airy inside and on the floor are large silk cushions in beautiful colours, colours so bright and so beautiful that you have never seen the like before. You sit down on the cushions, you feel safe, you feel at home.

You then become aware you are not alone three people have come to greet you and are so pleased and joyful to see you at last, they speak softly to you listen to what they say………. I will leave you a few moments to share the knowledge that is given to you……………..

Then all too soon it is time to go, you are given love and a gift, hold on to this gift and treasure it. You now find you are alone the door is now open and as you go through the door and down the three steps, the white light surrounds you completely it is soft and comforting and you feel at peace, deeper and more relaxed than before. You find yourself supported and being carried gently as if flowing on a gentle breeze down through the clouds slowly descending, down through the roof of the building where you once were, still holding on to your gift and what knowledge was given to you.

Soon you find yourself sitting on your chair, your feet are firmly on the floor and the pure white light carries down through your feet as if to grow roots so that your feet are firmly rooted deep in the earth below. The light then starts to fade around you but leaving you at peace and keeping you safe but fading and receding until it is a tiny white light above the crown of your head and then disappears into the heavens.

You are now firmly sitting upon your chair back in the room feet firm on the floor take a slow deep breath open your eyes when your are ready and make sure you have a glass of water stretch and make sure you are grounded."

Thank your guides for this wonderful trip and for keeping you safe and protected and loved




In a previous article I mentioned the Chrakras, the word Chakra comes from the Sanskrit meaning spinning wheel. The Chakras are energy centres and there are seven major and many minor ones, they are a link between the physical body and the subtle bodies or Aura. Their function is to channel Universal Energy (life force) from the Cosmos, where it is stored and assimilated by the body. Each Chakra in your spinal column is believed to influence or even govern bodily functions near its region of the spine. They cannot be seen however some Psychics have the ability to see them and are well documented in the traditions of the Far East.

The 7 major Chakras

Crown Chakra is located at the top of the head and its function is understanding. It's colour is violet and a corresponding crystal is Amethyst. It governs the pituitary gland, Cerebrum and surrounding tissues

Brow Chakra is located in the centre of the forehead just above the eyebrows. It's colour is indigo and crystal Iolite. It's function promotes thought and helps Psychic abilities. It governs the pineal gland and surrounding structures

Throat Chakra is located in the throat and functions are communication and creativity. It's colour is blue and crystal Sodalite. It governs the Thyroid and Parathyroids, communication area in the brain and surrounding structures.

Heart Chakra is located in the centre of the chest and functions are love and compassion. It's colour is green/pink so crystals such as Rose Quartz and Aventurine. It governs the Thymus and the heart and circulation.

Solar Plexus is located just above the navel, its function is will power, joy and anger, its colour is yellow and crystal Citrine. It governs the Pancreas and surrounding structures

Sacral Chakra is located in the lower abdomen and its functions are desire sexuality, pleasure and governs the genitals and surrounding tissues. It's colour is orange and crystal Carnelian.

Base Chakra is located at the base of the spine and its functions are grounding and survival and the surrounding tissues. It's colour is red and crystals associated are Ruby or Haematite 


It's that time of year again when due to the stresses of the Holiday Season, tempers can get a bit frayed. We are often together with relatives we don't necessarily get on with but have to make the effort. Money can also be an issue and because of life styles we spend longer with spouses and children. Christmas and New Year tends to be a busy time for me regarding clients as there tends to be so much arguing going on when ideally its a holiday and we should be enjoying it. Remember its only for a few days in a year, so first thing, count to ten and bite your tongue before opening your mouth and think before you speak.

To help you cope with the stresses of the Holiday a few remedies come to mind, these are remedies I have tried myself, so I can vouch for them and some that I recommend and the feedback I've had is good.

Each Kalms Tablet contains the active ingredients: Hops powder BHP 45mg, extract of valerian from 135mg, extract of gentian from 90mg.

Kalms Tablets a traditional herbal remedy its one to try if my first choice Bach Rescue Remedy isn't alleviating your anxiety

RESCUE Remedy is made up of a five individual flower essences that help you cope with the different emotional aspects of stressful situations:
  • Rock Rose is used for terror and panic
  • Impatiens addresses irritation and impatience
  • Clematis is for inattentiveness and a lack of focus
  • Star of Bethlehem is for shock
  • Cherry Plum helps with irrational thoughts and a lack of self control

Calming foods in your diet such as oats Avena sativa  As a food, oats are known to be good for the heart because they keep blood fats under control. They also have other medicinal properties. Avena sativa seeds are not only a rich source of carbohydrate and soluble fibre, they also have the highest content of Iron, Zinc and Manganese of any grain. It is said to be useful as a nerve restorative.
Avena sativa has no known side effects, unlike the sometimes dangerous sexual prescription drugs. This wonderful herb is thought to be soothing to the brain and nervous system, whilst at the same time increasing sexual desire, and performance, in both men and women! It is used as a nervous system general tonic as well as a general health tonic. You will find Avena sativa (oats) in many herbal tonics for anxiety and stress, what better way to take these, is to incorporate this wonderful food in your diet.

Valerian is another good herbal remedy for anxiety especially when anxiety and worry is leading to insomnia. its ability to relax the central nervous system and the smooth muscle groups. It has been used as a sleeping aid for hundreds of years.

Valerian is used in Europe as an antispasmodic, particularly for abdominal cramps due to nervousness and for uterine cramps and menstrual agitation. It helps relieve dysmenorrhoea and it can be of benefit in migraine and rheumatic pain. It may also be applied locally as a treatment for cramps and other muscle tensions.

Valerian is also used as a mild tranquilizer for people experiencing emotional stress, much as anti-anxiety drugs are prescribed and has been prescribed for exhaustion. Valerian has occasionally been tried as part of a program to take a patient off antidepressants or benzodiazepines, and is sometimes used as a muscle relaxant to treat pain.

Valerian does not impair driving ability and produces no morning hangover effect. It is a gentle relaxant and an effective sleep aid. As you can see above Kalms tablets contain Valerian along with Hops and Gentian these two are also known for their relaxing effects.

Valerian as an essential oil is a favourite of mine in aromatherapy, its quite pungent and as is the rule with aromatherapy do not use an oil on a client if they do not like the smell, its clearly not the correct oil for the client, no matter what you've read up about its therapeutic effects.

Food rich in Tryptophan has been shown to be helpful for sleep, calming frayed nerves, weight loss, mood enhancement, pain tolerance, appetite control, chemical addiction, jet lag, and more.

Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the precursor to Serotonin, which is a necessary neurotransmitter responsible for transmitting nerve impulses in the brain and inducing sleep and tranquillity. Serotonin deficiencies, which are related, are well documented in cases of depression and insomnia. L-Tryptophan also converts to Niacin, and Vitamin B-6 (5P) is necessary for the metabolism and conversion to Serotonin. The dietary sources for L-Tryptophan are cottage cheese, milk, brown ride, peanuts, meat, turkey and soy products.

Whatever you do don't over indulge in alcohol in an effort to help you cope, that's how addictions start and alcohol as a solution never works anyway, you may forget your worries whilst drinking but in the cold light of a new day, you'll wake up the worse for it. Alcohol is a poison your poor liver has to break down. There's nothing wrong with drinking in moderation but you should not use alcohol as a prop, its a depressant, it often makes people argumentative and take risks as judgement is impaired.

I hope this blog has given you some food for thought, excuse the pun and wishing you all a stress free Holiday


REFLEXOLOGY dates back to ancient civilisations such as Egypt, India and China, but this therapy was only introduced to the West in the early 20th Century. The oldest documentation of Reflexology comes from a pictograph in the tomb of an Egyptian Physician Ankhmahor (2500-2330 B.C.) at Saqquara near Cairo.

It shows two men working on the feet and hands of two other men. The hieroglyphics above the scene read‘ Do not let it be painful’ says one of the patients.‘ I do as you please’ the practitioner says

In China there is evidence of some form of foot and hand therapy being practiced as long ago as 4,000 B.C., and the North American Indians have practised a form of foot therapy for hundreds of years. It was not until Dr William Fitzgerald USA 1872-1942 who was an Ear Nose and Throat Surgeon. He practiced in the USA, briefly in London and Vienna for 2 years. He was the founder of “Zone Therapy”, an early form of reflexology. But it was medical journalist Dr. Edwin Bowers who suggested his method be known as 'Zone Therapy'. Through research Dr. Fitzgerald discovered that if he exerted pressure on the tips of the toes or fingers, a corresponding part of the body would be anaesthetised. From this theory he divided the body into 10 equal zones running from the top of the head to the tips of the toes. He found that by applying pressure using tight bands of elastic on the middle section of each finger, or by using small clamps that were placed on the tips, he could carry out minor surgery using this technique only. These were very controversial ideas at the time.

However it was Eunice Ingham (1889 -1974) USA “The Mother of Modern Reflexology” who finally developed it to the form we now know and recognise. She was a Physiotherapist who worked in a Doctors practice and she used Dr Fitzgerald’s Zone Therapy method. However, she felt that the therapy could be more effective on the feet than the hands. After extensive research she evolved a map of the entire body on the feet. Hence the saying ‘The feet are a mirror of the body’. Eunice Ingham travelled around America for 30 years teaching Reflexology first to Doctors and Nurses and then to non-medical practitioners. It was in 1966 Doreen Bailey who was a former student of Eunice Ingham, returned to England and became the pioneer of reflexology as we know today in the UK


After a detailed consultation, asking about medical history and making sure there are no contra-indications to treatment, the therapist will make the client comfortable, this may be on a couch or a chair and foot stool and indeed, reflexology is extremely soothing and relaxing, many clients do fall asleep during treatment. There are different methods, some reflexologists like to work on both beet simultaneously others do not and if one or both of the feet are injured for example the reflexologist can work on the corresponding hand instead. The treatment generally lasts approximately an hour and generally begins with a soothing massage to relax and open the feet prior to the more detailed work on the specific reflexes. Each area of the feet when placed together mirror the body and reflexes is the term given to each area of the body mapped on the feet. e.g. the head reflex are the big toes. The type of pressure point massage we use is like finger walking using the thumb though we may use all our fingertips at certain points during the treatment. We can often tell where in the clients body there is an imbalance, this is where we might pick up a 'Reflex' and to describe what we find, its often a grainy area that dissipates when we work that area or the client may say there is a specific tender area, which may correspond to an area in the body where the client has an imbalance.

On completion the reflexologist will make a note of her findings and will often suggest a follow up treatment, the client will find that the treatment is very relaxing and its quite common for the client to state they feel as if they are walking on air.

Often many reflexologists work with doctors these days and doctors have now begun to see how reflexology is a valuable complementary therapy.


It never ceases to amaze me how powerful reflexology is and how useful it is as a  complement to orthodox medicine. More and more local health authorities are recognising it's value and I was fortunate enough to work within the palliative care team at my local teaching hospital. All my patients were terminal and the palliative care team's job was to make patients last days on earth as comfortable and as pain free as possible. I worked both as an aromatherapist and a reflexologist there.

Some patients were still receiving chemotherapy and of course having unpleasant side effects such as loss of appetite and nausea  essential oils played a great part in helping the nausea and helping with the understandable anxiety knowing that their illness was terminal. Because these patient's health was very fragile, the treatment generally was centred on treatment of the hands and feet, as they were too fragile to have a full body or back and shoulders treatment, none the less, these treatments were very helpful and the feed back from the patients and their relatives was very good. The patient's relatives also benefited from therapy too as caring for a loved one who has not long to live is undoubtably stressful.

One case study I recall however was from a client at my local practise, she had been diagnosed as having a terminal brain tumour. Although the tumour was not malignant, it's place in the brain was inoperable and as it had been slow growing it was hard to say how the prognosis would go. She was experiencing tremendous headaches and her eyesight was now being affected as the tumour was growing near the area of the brain that governs sight. Her doctors could no longer do anything but help with the pain and wait and see how things panned out. She was suffering extreme anxiety, as you would expect and she was not sleeping at all well. She explained to me where the tumour was and she had the permission from her doctor to have reflexology, this is very important as reflexology is a very powerful tool and in some cases can stimulate the body so much medications may be affected.

On examination of her feet, the area of the big toes corresponds in reflexology as the head with the base of the big toes as the neck, I discovered a lump like reflex on the pad of the big toe on one foot, it wasn't uncomfortable to work this area on the client, but on the big toe of the the foot although there was no lump like reflex present, it was very sensitive and painful. This did not strike me as unusual given my experience as we know the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa. As I worked her feet, she fell asleep and when I completed the treatment she told me she felt more relaxed that she had for some time. I advised her to come back a couple of weeks later for a follow up treatment.

When I saw her a fortnight later she was smiling and very eager to tell me when she returned home after treatment she slept all afternoon and woke up headache free and her sleeping was much improved, something she had not experienced for a while. I saw her regularly at fortnightly intervals for around six treatments in total and her headaches had lessened to almost negligible. Now I can't say if this was down to the reflexology or the aromatherapy oils I used in the foot cream for massage, but it helped where nothing had previously. Her doctors were pleased with her progress and possibly it was the nature of her tumour, but I do know from the case loads of patients I have worked on complementary therapies are a valuable addition to orthodox medicine.

Up until a century or so ago medicine was all holistic, where the whole person was looked at and ailments were not pigeon holed, I am glad to see, there has been a turn in the tide and physicians are now seeing the benefits of Complementary (holistic) therapies after all, we are all 'mind, body and spirit'.


This point on the Large Intestine Meridian is a useful pressure point for relieving headaches, it is very important you DO NOT attempt whilst pregnant as it can induce contractions as it brings all the energy down into the centre of the body

Name: Joining of the Valleys (Large Intestine 4)
Location: On the top side of the hand, on the web between thumb and index finger. To locate, squeeze the thumb against the base of the index finger. The point is located on the highest point of the bulge of the muscle, level with the end of the crease. You will find you have the correct position when it is painful in a nice way, if that makes sense.
Use: Press.
Warning: Don't use this point during pregnancy.
Effects: Letting go of grief. Calms. Very good for relieving a headache


The reason I have included this diagram below as it one of the most beneficial points to help induce a state of relaxation and one of the common points I have used in Reiki and Acupressure massage. You will find this point at the base of the skull and in actual fact you will find your finger tip will slip into this point easily whether on a client or yourself. The measurement of "a cun" its traditional measure is the width of a person's thumb at the knuckle, whereas the width of the two forefingers denotes 1.5 cun and the width of all fingers side-by-side is three cuns.

When gently massaged with either the forefinger on thumb, this point induces a sense of calmness and aids relaxation hence the name "Jade Pillow"

Diagram below courtesy of http://acupunctureschoolonline.com

BL-9 Jade Pillow YUZHEN - Acupuncture Points

BL-9 Jade Pillow YUZHEN -3
[BL-9 Jade Pillow YUZHEN - Acupuncture Points] 2.5 cun superior to the posterior hairline and 1.3 cun lateral to the midline or ➞Du-17 (directly superior to the external occipital protuberance).
How to find
To locate BL-9, ➞ Du-17 is a good reference point, located on
the midline, in the depression directly superior to the upper border
of the external occipital protuberance (➞3.1.5). From there,
measure 1.3 cun in a lateral direction to locate BL-9, which is
generally located on an imaginary vertical line through ➞BL-10.
Or: Locate the posterior hairline (often not very accurate
➞ 3.1.5) and, on the midline, measure 2.5 cun in a superior
direction, then 1.3 cun towards lateral.
Located on the same level are ➞ Du-17 (midline, in the depression
at the upper border of the external occipital protuberance)
and ➞ G.B.-19 (more laterally, on a vertical line through
Transversely (subcutaneously) 0.5–1 cun. Moxibustion possible.
● Expels Wind and Cold
● Opens the channel and luo vessels, alleviates pain
● Benefits the eyes and nose
Special features
In Qigong practice, BL-9 plays an important role as one of the
three gates (san guan).
BL-9 Jade Pillow YUZHEN
BL-9 Jade Pillow YUZHEN


The word 'Reiki' is a Japanese word meaning Universal Life Energy and it is the name given to a natural healing system developed by Dr. Mikao Usui. It took Dr. Usui many years of study of ancient teachings to develop this system of healing and he dedicated his life to practising and teaching Reiki. Dr Usui rediscovered and developed this system of healing on a trip to Mt. Kurama, At some point in his life he became a Tendai Buddhist Monk/Priest (what we in the west call a lay priest). On several occasions he took a form of meditation lasting 21 days.He took it into hospitals in Japan. Dr. Usui died in 1926 but before he died he passed on Reiki to Dr. Chujiro Hayashi. Dr. Hayashi was a naval doctor. It has been said he is probably the originator of the hand position system used here in the west. He started his Reiki training with Usui Sensei in 1925, 47 years of age. It is believed he was one of the last Reiki Masters trained by Usui.

Following his first training he left the Usui school and started a small clinic in Tokyo named "Hayashi Reiki Kenkyu-kai", which had 8 beds and 16 healers. Practitioners worked in pairs of two to a bed giving treatments to patients. Dr Hayashi compiled his own 40 page manual on how to use the hand positions for certain ailments. This manual may have been give to his students. During his work with Reiki he initiated about 17 Reiki Masters including Mrs Takata. Mrs Hawayo Takata is responsible for bringing Reiki to the west.

Chujiro Hayashi ritually ended his life by committing Seppuku' on May 10th 1940.

Hawayo Takata was born at dawn on December 24th 1900, on the island of Kauai, Hawaii. Her parents were Japanese immigrants and her father worked in the sugar cane fields. She eventually married the bookkeeper of the plantation where she was employed. In October of 1930, Saichi Takata died at the age of thirty-four leaving Mrs. Takata to raise their two daughters. In order to provide for her family, she had to work very hard with little rest. After five years she developed severe abdominal pain, a lung condition and had a nervous breakdown.

Soon after this, one of her sisters died and she traveled to Japan where her parents had moved to deliver the news. She also felt she could find help for her poor health in Japan. Here she came in contact with Dr Hayashi's clinic and she began receiving Reiki treatment. Mrs. Takata received daily treatments twice a day and got progressively better. In four months, she was completely healed. Impressed by the results, she wanted to learn Reiki. In the Spring of 1936, Mrs. Takata received First Degree Reiki (Shoden). She worked with Dr. Hayashi for one year and then received Second Degree Reiki (Okuden).

Mrs. Takata returned to Hawaii in 1937. She was soon followed by Dr. Hayashi who came to help Mrs Takata establish Reiki in Hawaii. In the Winter of 1938, Dr. Hayashi initiated Hawayo Takata as a Reiki Master. She was the thirteenth and last Reiki Master Dr. Hayashi initiated. Between 1970 and her transition on December 11th 1980, Mrs. Takata initiated twenty-two Reiki Masters. These twenty two teachers went on to teach others and Reiki spread world wide.

Being a Reiki Master teacher myself I can name the lineage from Dr Usui. My Reiki master's Reiki master was taught by one of the twenty two initiated by Mrs Takata, this makes me seventh in line from Dr. Usui.

Reiki is a form of spiritual healing using "universal life energy" channelled through the practitioner to the recipient. 
Reiki helps to harmonize body, mind and spirit for yourself or anyone you want to help.
Reiki treatment
You relax, fully clothed, on a couch or seated while the healer holds his hands on or above you. A treatment can last an hour or longer depending on the treatment required. In the western world many practitioners use the standard hand positions and commonly a full treatment is given covering all the important organs of the body.
There is no pressure on the body making it ideal for treating all ages and conditions, sometimes hands are even held away from the body. The energy flows wherever it is required (spiritually guided) and can normally be felt as a warm sensation or tingling in the body. Receiving Reiki is a very relaxing and soothing experience!

The ability to use Reiki is normally given via an attunement or initiation. There are 3 levels of Reiki: Reiki 1 and 2 and the Master level.

During the attunement/initiation process the Reiki master acts as a mirror to help the student adjust to the Reiki energy. This energy creates an open "channel" for the cosmic or universal life energy. From the top of the persons head and through this "channel" the energy flows down through the body and back out through the hands when Reiki is "given". The Reiki attunement is almost always a very special spiritual experience for the receiver and sometimes also for the Master. It is one you will never forget and is a very important milestone in your life.

The Reiki Principals taught by Dr Usui

  • For today only: Value today! The present is now, life is not in the future or in the past, there is only now!
  • Do not anger Realize that anger and other selfish emotions like resentment, hatred, envy are harmful, avoid such emotions.
  • Do not worry Do your best, believe and trust in the universe.
  • Express your thanks In this world it is easy to lose ourselves when we forget gratitude for being alive.
  • Be diligent in your work, and be kind to others It is not important what we do, it is important what we learn from what we do. "Be kind to others" also means take good care of yourself, there is no difference between self and others in a universal dimension.




    It is the systematic use of essential oils in Holistic treatments to improve physical and Emotional well being. Essential Oils are extracted from plants and possess distinctive therapeutic properties, which can be used to improve health and prevent disease. Both their physiological and psychological effects combine well to promote positive health. 

    Essential Oils can be applied in a variety of ways such as in massage, baths and inhalations. They are readily absorbed into the skin and have gentle physiological effects and Aromatherapy is an especially effective therapy for stress-related disorders and a variety of chronic ailments

    Aromatherapy has its roots in ancient civilisations i.e. the Ancient Egyptians and the Romans used plants and herbs and oils extracted from these for religious, medical and cosmetic purposes and in the Ancient Egyptians used Essential Oils for Embalming and Preserving. 

    What are Essential Oils? 

    Essential oils are aromatic, volatile substances extracted from a single botanical source by distillation or expression. They are found in leaves, the hairs on leaves, in flowers, in tree bark or roots, in fruit pulp and peel. Similar to animal hormones, they are sometimes referred to as the plants’ ‘Life force’. The cells containing essential oils are generally close to the surface but they can only be seen with the help of a microscope. The essence is either stored in the cell where it is made or, as is the case with citrus fruits, moved to special storage sacs. 

    Essential Oils are: 

    • Aromatic, have a distinctive and often fragrant smell 
    • Volatile, evaporate quickly in the air and to varying degrees depending on the oil 
    • Very powerful when neat, are usually blended with a carrier oil for massage purposes 
    • Flammable, must be kept in a cool place away from heat and/or naked flames 
    • Soluble in oil and alcohol, (in water they will form a suspension) 
    • Liquid, exceptions include Rose Otto and Benzoin, which are semi-solid Non-greasy, despite their name, the oils are generally light and not oily Expensive, producing the plants and extracting the oil is labour intensive and thus not cheap.

    Essential Oils come from various parts of the plants. Some plants only produce one oil e.g. 
    • Basil oil from Basil leaves 
    • Carrot from Carrot seeds 
    • Pine from the needles and sometimes the cones of Pine trees 

    Other plants produce several oils from different parts e.g. each Sweet Orange tree produces three essential oils 

    •Petitgrain from the leaves and branches 
    • Neroli from the blossom 
    • Sweet Orange from the peel 


    How should oils be stored? 

    Essential oils are delicate and expensive; it is therefore wise to look after them. They should be stored: 

    • Away from extremes of temperature, heat will evaporate them and cold can affect their composition 
    • In dark, amber/blue glass bottles, essential oils are sensitive to ultraviolet light, they should not be stored, or bought in plastic because it affects the molecular structure of the oil 
    • In tightly sealed bottles, to protect them from evaporating in the air and to stop contact with the air from changing their composition 
    • Out of the reach of children. 

    Are Essential Oils Safe? 

    Used correctly essential oils are very safe, mainly because they are used in such tiny amounts. When used in the wrong dilutions and in the wrong conditions they can produce adverse effects. Certain oils should never be used, under any circumstances and some should not be used for specific conditions. 

    N.B. Essential oils are very strong and should not be swallowed. If oil gets into the eye rinse it immediately with lots of water. If necessary seek medical advice. 

    N.B. Essential oils should never be used in the first three months of pregnancy. For the rest of the term, Mandarin is the only oil, which may be used. 



    What are the specific effects of Aromatherapy?

    Using Essential Oils affects the Human Body 

    • Pharmacologically, essential oils are chemical and so are humans. Once essential oils have been absorbed into the body, either through the skin or inhalation, the chemicals in the oils enter the blood and other body fluids and interact with the chemistry of our bodies e.g. hormones, enzymes and neurotransmitters are all chemicals and the presence of another chemical (the essential oil) can affect the way they work. 
    • Physiologically: physiology is the way our body works. Essential oils can affect this by changing the chemical messages and impulses sent around the body and thus changing the way the systems of the human body function e.g. if an oil has relaxing and de-stressing properties, it may help to relieve the symptoms of stress displayed by our bodies e.g. slowing heart rate and breathing rate or encouraging tense muscles to relax. 
    • Psychologically: the way essential oils affect our mind is more difficult to describe, mainly because everyone’s mind id different. However, our sense of smell is closely linked to our memory so that particular smells can cause particular responses: e.g. if you dislike the smell of Roses, Rose oil is unlikely to relax you; if Jasmine reminds you of a good holiday then its smell will bring back happy memories and provoke a positive response. 

    General effects of Aromatherapy

    There are certain effects from using essential oils which result from most treatments, especially since relaxing and/or hands-on application methods like massage and baths are very common in aromatherapy. 

    General effects include:

    • Reduction in Stress & Tension 
    • Feeling of Well-being, Balance and Calm 
    • Antibacterial effects of oil help the body to heal and support the immune system. 

    How do essential oils penetrate the skin? 

    There are two ways that oil can safely penetrate the body: 

    1. Smell/Inhalation 
    2. Absorption via the skin Ingestion, i.e. swallowing them is not safe. 

    Smelling & Inhaling Essential Oils. The Nose & Olfactory Tract Smell is the fastest way for Essential Oils to penetrate the body. The molecules travel up the nose and there are two results: they send a message to the brain and nerves which respond to the new smell and they pass into the blood stream via the lungs and the respiratory system. 

    In order to understand how this works, it helps to understand the structure of the Olfactory Tract. 

    Most of the nose is concerned with breathing: inhaling air into the body and exhaling it out, however it is the organ of smell and thus very important in a therapy based on the power of aromas! At the top of the nose there are two areas of pigmented tissue known as Olfactory Membranes. They contain the olfactory, or smell-sensing cells, which have fine hair-like protrusions called cilia. The olfactory cells connect to nerves in an area known as the Olfactory Plexus. Once triggered, these nerves send messages along the olfactory Nerves to the Brain, particularly the Limbic System. This is the area of the brain that deals with Memory, Emotions, Our Basic Instincts and Mechanical Functions. When essential oil molecules pass over the olfactory cells, it is thought that these cells trigger receptor areas, which send an impulse via the olfactory plexus and nerves to the brain. Here the information is processed and interpretated (with either positive or negative associations). Depending on the interpretation, the brain sends messages to other parts of the body to elicit a response e.g. Grimace! The brain may also react to different chemicals in an essential oil and produce particular effects e.g. a relaxing or sedative substance may cause the brain to send out a message of relaxation either to the whole body or a particular part. 

    How do Oils Penetrate the Skin? 

    Essential oils are absorbed through the skin. In order to understand this, it helps to understand the skin’s structure. Being the largest human organ it is water resistant, but extremely minute substances, such as the molecules of an essential oil, can enter the tiny pores of the Epidermis, as well as penetrating through the hair follicles and the sweat glands. From here they enter the blood capillaries in the dermis. Once the oil reaches the blood and the circulation it is transported around the whole body. 


    Essential Oils are almost always used in a blend. They are blended with Carrier oils for use in massage and in some cases, baths. The correct blend is very important because essential oils are potentially toxic if used undiluted. They are also highly concentrated and will therefore not go very far in a massage on their own! 

    What is a Carrier Oil? 

    Carrier oils are known as fixed oils because unlike essential oils, they do not evaporate when heated. They are extracted from plants, flowers, nuts and seeds and those generally used in aromatherapy do not have a strong smell as it might interfere with that of the essential oil. Some carrier oils contain fat-soluble vitamins e.g. A, D, E and K, minerals and proteins in differing amounts, so have healthy benefits of their own. 

    Carrier Oils Used in Aromatherapy are:

    • Of vegetable, nut or seed origin 
    • Refined preferably cold-pressed 
    • Stable, not volatile 
    • Used neat 
    • Non sticky 
    • Lubricants for aromatherapist’s hands thus giving a smooth massage. 

    There are several suitable carrier oils, which can be used alone or in a blend with other carriers. Some are lighter than others and often the thicker denser oils, which are more expensive and may be used, mixed with a lighter oil to make them go further. Lighter oils are better for a full body massage because they allow smoother movements whereas the thicker oils are more useful for massage on a small area. 

    Recommended carrier oils are

    Grapeseed Evening Primrose Calendula Sweet-Almond Avocado Macadamia Wheatgerm Jojoba Peach-Kernel 

    DILUTIONS What are the correct dilutions? 

    Dilutions depend on two factors i.e. the treatment and the scale of the treatment. The following are just guidelines and the more experienced Aromatherapist will adapt them according to circumstances. Treat dilutions and blends like a medical treatment i.e. a prescription must provide the right drug and dosage for the condition and patient. The same care should be used to create blends i.e. use the right oils for the problem in the appropriate amounts. For a treatment to work, just like a prescription, the quantities and qualities of both essential oil and carrier oil must remain constant. 

    How much Essential Oil should be mixed with Carrier Oil? 

    Usually from 1 % to 2%, the maximum dilution should be 2.5% of Essential Oil. 

    How do I work out & measure these percentage? 

    1 % equals one-drop essential oil to 100 drops carrier and 2% blend equals two drops essential oil to 100 drops carrier. 
    Does that mean I have to count out 1OO drops of carrier oil? – No, 100 drops of oil is equivalent to 5mls or one teaspoon, therefore 1 % dilution would be one drop of essential oil per 5mls and 2% would be two drops per 5mls. 
    Are there any instances when these dilutions are wrong or need changing? Use a maximum 1 % dilution when treating:

    • Clients with sensitive skin 
    • The elderly 
    • Children 
    • The weak/convalescent 
    • Pregnant or breastfeeding 

    How much oil is needed for different treatments? 

    Full body massages require about 20-25mls carrier oil i.e. 8 drops essential oil per 20mls. 

    For face massage only about 5mls of carrier is required i.e. 1-2 drops of essential oil per 5mls. 
    Absolutes may contain traces of solvents so a weaker solution i.e. 1 % blend should be used. 

    Baths essential oils float or sink so drops should not be added directly to the bath water but should be mixed with a small quantity of an emulsifier such as a fragrance-free shampoo, bath gel, liquid soap or even full cream milk before adding to the bath. 

    Those with sensitive skin should use a lower concentration and take care with those oils known to cause skin irritations. 

    Burners use two drops of the chosen oil in water 

    Compresses soak the cloth in 100mls of water and add two drops of the chosen oil. 

    Steam inhalations use one drop of essential oil to a bowl of hot water, two for a stronger effect. 

    N.B. When using essential oils, always be very careful if in doubt, don’t. 

    How Long do Blends Last? 

    The average shelf life of a blend lasts approximately 3 months however by adding 10% Wheatgerm oil this can be extended to approx. 6 months. 

    Can oils be used undiluted? 

    Only in specific circumstances i.e. Lavender or Tea Tree, though some may be sensitive to the latter. Blending Oils that blend well Oils that are in the same botanical family to which they belong blend well i.e. the citrus e.g. Grapefruit & Lemon etc. 
    Botanical Families & Examples Woody Cedarwood & Pine Herbaceous Marjoram & Clary Sage Citrus Bergamot & Lemon Floral Geranium & Rose Resinous Galbanum & Frankincense Spicy Ginger and Black Pepper 

    A general guide to blending can be gained by looking at the ‘Note’ of the individual oil. The Note is a measure of the volatility of the oil, of which there are three main categories.

    Top Notes 
    • Fresh & light in aroma 
    • The fastest acting • The quickest to evaporate 
    • The most stimulating & uplifting to both mind and body 
    Middle Notes 
    • Moderately volatile 
    • Primarily affect the functions of the body systems e.g. the digestive system etc. 
    • Affect the general metabolism 
    Base Notes 
    • Are rich & Heavy 
    • Slower to evaporate and therefore mixed with top notes, help to ‘hold back’ the volatility of that oil 
    • The most sedating & relaxing 

    A Frenchman named ‘Piesse’ developed the categorisation of oil notes during the 19th century. He classified aromas according to their harmony with other oils and based their grade on the musical scale; each aroma forming perfectly balanced chords or harmonics when combined with other oils. The simplest ratio being 3:2:1 i.e. Three drops top note, two drops middle and one drop base. 

    Contra-indications for aromatherapy are the same for any massage with the proviso that certain oils will not be suitable depending on the client’s condition. 



    Lavender is from the same family as Rosemary and can be used in much the same way as Rosemary in cooking, often used in French and Moroccan dishes, it is relatively easy to grow and has a multitude of uses but here I want to talk about the use of Lavender as an essential oil.

    Like all essential oils do not use in pregnancy or breastfeeding and in epilepsy and a known allergy

    Lavender is the only essential oil that can be used neat on the skin (its extremely rare for anyone to have a reaction) and very useful to have in the first aid kit for MINOR burns where the skin is unbroken and the appropriate first aid routine as taken place first i.e. placing affected area into cold running water for 20 mins. It helps prevent scaring, its good to apply with a cotton bud on spots (unbroken skin) and insect bites and in fact applied onto pulse spots like the wrists, backs of knees and temples, neck etc. will help avoid being bitten in the first place. However for massage of large areas a 1% dilution for the head and face and 2% dilution for the body in a suitable carrier. If adding lavender to a bath either dilute in carrier oil and if you have no carrier it can be diluted in some milk and added to the bath.

    It's one of the most popular of essential oils in Aromatherapy and has been used in healing in one form of another for centuries. Dried lavender bags have been used in time gone by to deter moths and insects in linen drawers as well as to fragrance them. It was used as an antiseptic back in Roman times who used it to cleanse their skin and wounds and the word comes for the Latin "Lavare" meaning to wash. Lavender was also very popular in Elizabethan times and English lavender was cultivated around Mitchum Surrey and now cultivated extensively in Norfolk.

    It's properties were discovered or rather re-discovered by the French chemist Gattefosse quite by accident when he burned his hand and having no water to cool it he plunged it into a vat of lavender essential oil, he noticed how well the burn healed with no scaring and so heralded the birth of modern Aromatherapy.

    It can lower blood pressure so can make the user feel a bit dull and drowsy so some caution is needed. It has a calming effect on the mind and can help insomnia however only in small doses if too much is used it will have the opposite effect. It's good for muscular aches and strains and beneficial for the respiratory system helping ease catarrh, laryngitis and colds (a couple of drops to some hot water for inhalations). It helps menstrual cramps massaged over the lower back and abdomen. Its good for headaches either a drop neat on the temples or better still added to some tepid water to make a compress to apply across the forehead

    On a spiritual level Lavender helps stabilises the physical, etheric and astral bodies therefore induces a calm state of mind and helps dispel anger and soothes the spirit and helps dispel negativity.

    There are so many ways to use this valuable essential oil both neat on the skin for spot treatments in dilution for massage and in the bath, as an inhalation, on pillows to help insomnia and in a burner and can be made into a room spray (a few drops of the essential oil added to some water add a drop of liquid detergent this acts as an emulsifier to disperse the essential oil throughout the water and can be placed in an atomiser

    MPB (c)


    Patchouli essential oil's value in skincare is incalculable. It is also great for fighting depression and anxiety. It has great diuretic properties and also helps break down cellulite, while stimulating the regeneration of skin cells, speeding up healing and preventing ugly scars forming when wounds heal. Patchouli oil has a rich musky-sweet, strong spicy and herbaceous smell. It is light yellow to dark brown in color and is a thick oil. It is a perennial, bushy plant that grows up to 1meter (3 feet) high, with a sturdy, hairy stem and large, fragrant, furry leaves, about four inches long and five inches across. It has whitish flowers tinged with purple. The plant is native to Malaysia and India, where it is known as 'puchaput'. The word is derived from Hindustan word 'patch' meaning 'green' and 'ilai' meaning 'leaf.' It was placed between Indian cashmere shawls en route to Victorian England, to protect the merchandise from moths, and without this signature smell of dried patchouli leaves the shawls could not be sold in England. In the East, it is used in potpourris and sachets and place between linen, to keep bedbugs away, and it is the smell of patchouli oil, mixed with that of camphor, that gives Indian ink its characteristic smell.  Patchouli oil is extracted from the young leaves which are dried and fermented prior to steam distillation and yields 2 - 3 %. This oil improves with age to have a fuller, more well rounded odor.

    Chemical composition
    The chemical components of patchouli oil are b-patchoulene, a-guaiene, caryophyllene, a-patchoulene, seychellene, a-bulnesene, norpatchoulenol, patchouli alcohol and pogostol.

    It is non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing, but the smell of patchouli oil may be a little persistent for some people and large doses may cause loss of appetite in some individuals (thus can help curb appetite in aiding weight control). As usual do not use if suffering from epilepsy or in pregnancy and always in dilution.

    Therapeutic properties
    The therapeutic properties of patchouli oil are antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cicatrisant, cytophylactic, deodorant, diuretic, febrifuge, fungicide, insecticide, sedative and tonic.

    Patchouli oil has a grounding and balancing effect on the emotions and banishes lethargy, while sharpening the wits, fighting depression and anxiety. It is also said to create an amorous atmosphere.
    It is effective for fungal and bacterial infection and is of great help for insect bites. It could also be used as an insect repellant and is also used as a support for dealing with any substance addiction.
    With its excellent diuretic properties, it is effective in fighting water retention and to break up cellulite, easing constipation and helping to reduce overweight. Furthermore, it has a great deodorizing action, and helps when feeling hot and bothered, while cooling down inflammations and assisting with wound healing. On the skin, this oil is one of the most active and is a superb tissue regenerator, which helps to stimulate the growth of new skin cells. In wound healing, it not only promotes faster healing, but also helps to prevent ugly scarring when the wound heals. Patchouli oil is very effective in sorting out rough, cracked and overly dehydrated skin and is used to treat acne, acne, eczema, sores, ulcers, any fungal infections, as well as scalp disorders. Patchouli oil has a beneficial effect on the skin, helps for infections and insect bites, water retention and can help with stress related problems and addictions. 
    Burners and vaporizers
    In vapor therapy, patchouli oil can be used to fight anxiety and depression, while at the same time creating a very amorous atmosphere and acting as an insect repellent.

    Blended massage oil or in the bath 
    As a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath, patchouli oil can help to fight depression, skin and scalp complaints, fungal infections, fluid retention, help to break down cellulite and also assists with constipation, overweight and dermatitis.

    Lotions and creams 
    In a lotion or cream, patchouli oil can be used for general skin care, as it has superb tissue regenerating properties, to help rejuvenate the skin and stimulate the formation of new skin cells, while fighting infections. It also speeds up healing, while preventing the wound forming ugly scars and is effective for acne, eczema, weeping sores, ulcers, slow healing wounds, scalp disorders, as well as other fungal infections, such as athlete's foot.


    Rosemary has been extensively used since ancient times for a variety of purposes. The Romans gave special importance to rosemary plant and used it in religious ceremonies. Its use extended to wedding ceremonies, food, cosmetics, and herbal care. Rosemary plant and its extract were also used in the ancient Egyptian civilization as incense.

    The health benefits of rosemary essential oil made it a favorite of Paracelsus, a renowned physician, who made significant contribution to herbal medicine during the sixteenth century. Paracelsus valued rosemary oil due to its ability to strengthen the entire body. He (rightly) believed that rosemary oil had the ability to heal delicate organs such as liver, brain as well as heart.

    Rosemary was well known to ancient practitioners. It was an herb known for strengthening the memory and helping the brain. Eventually, it also became associated with the fidelity of lovers, and was presented to wedding guests as a gift. In 1607, Roger Hacket said, "Speaking of the powers of rosemary, it overtoppeth all the flowers in the garden, boasting man's rule. It helpeth the brain, strengtheneth the memorie, and is very medicinable for the head. Another property of the rosemary is, it affects the heart." 

    Rosemary was often cultivated in kitchen gardens, and was said to represent the dominance of the lady of the house. One would assume that more than one "master" sabotaged his wife's garden to assert his own authority! This woody plant was also known to provide delicious flavoring for game and poultry. Later, it was used in wine and cordials, and even as a Christmas decoration. 

    Roman priests used rosemary as incense in religious ceremonies, and many cultures considered it a herb to use as protection from evil spirits and witches. In England, it was burned in the homes of those who had died from illness, and placed on coffins before the grave was filled with dirt. 

    For magical use, burn rosemary to rid a home of negative energy, or as an incense while you meditate. Hang bundles on your front door to keep harmful people, like burglars, from entering. Stuff a healing poppet with dried rosemary to take advantage of its medicinal properties, or mix with juniper berries and burn in a sickroom to promote healthy recovery. In spellwork, rosemary can be used as a substitute for other herbs such as frankincense.

    As an essential oil

    Rosemary oil should not be used during pregnancy and is unsuitable for people with epilepsy or high blood pressure.

    Therapeutic properties
    The therapeutic properties of rosemary oil are analgesic, antidepressant, astringent, carminative, cephalic, cholagogue, cordial, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, hepatic, hypertensive, nervine, rubefacient, stimulant, sudorific and tonic.
    • Rosemary oil has a pronounced action on the brain and the central nervous system and is wonderful for clearing the mind and mental awareness, while having excellent brain stimulant properties, as well as improving memory.
    • It helps with headaches, migraines, neuralgia, mental fatigue and nervous exhaustion and the antiseptic action of rosemary oil is especially suitable for intestinal infections and diarrhea, easing colitis, dyspepsia, flatulence, hepatic disorders and jaundice and relieving pain associated with rheumatism, arthritis, muscular pain and gout. It also helps for arteriosclerosis, palpitations, poor circulation and varicose veins.
    • The diuretic properties of rosemary oil are useful with reducing water retention during menstruation, and also with obesity and cellulite.
    • On the respiratory system, it is effective for asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, sinus and whooping cough. Because of its astringent action, it is also effective for countering sagging skin. Its stimulating action benefits scalp disorders and encourages hair growth.
    • On the skin, it helps to ease congestion, puffiness and swelling and can also be used for acne, dermatitis and eczema, but a very popular use of this oil is the use in hair care products, as it has a pronounced positive effect on the health of the hair and scalp. It increases the circulation to the scalp and is therefore also effective for promoting hair growth.

    Rosemary oil is effective for mental fatigue, circulation problems, pain relief for the muscular system, decongests the respiratory tract and is a skin and hair booster.

    Burners and vaporizers
    In vapor therapy, rosemary oil can be helpful for congestion, alcohol over-indulgence, overwork, sinusitis and mental and physical tiredness. It furthermore stimulates the brain, improves memory and promotes clear thinking.
    Blended massage oil or in the bath
    As a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath, rosemary oil can assist with liver and gall problems, mucus congestion, muscular aches, cramps, pains and spasms, stiff neck, overwork, rheumatism, arthritis, colds, constipation, diarrhea, coughs, bronchitis, back pain, scalp disorders, sinusitis, mental fatigue and physical tiredness.
    Cream or lotion
    ◦ In a cream or lotion it is most beneficial for improving blood circulation and decongesting the skin.
    ◦ When added to shampoo it not only increases the circulation to the scalp and thereby improving hair growth, but also acts as a general conditioner and tonic for the hair and scalp.


    This resinous oil has a great calming and uplifting effect on the mind and helps to comfort the sad and lonely, while boosting circulation and easing respiratory disorders. At the same time it boosts the skin's elasticity, while calming redness, itchiness and irritation. Benzoin oil has a sweet, warm and vanilla-like aroma and is golden brown in color, with a treacle-like viscosity.

    It is extracted from the tree Styrax Benzoin tree which grows in Java, Sumatra and Thailand and grows to 8 meters (20 feet). It is also known as gum benzoin, luban jawi (meaning frankincense of Java), Benjamin or Styrax benzoin. Deep incisions are made in the trunk of the tree, from which the grayish colored sap exudes. When the resinous lump becomes hard and brittle, it is collected from the bark.
    Benzoin, also known as gum Benjamin, is one of the classic ingredients of incense. In ancient civilizations it was used in fumigation and it is also an ingredient of 'Friar's balsam', an aid to respiratory problems. It is also used as a fixative in the perfume industry.
    Chemical composition
    Benzoin oil's main chemical components are benzoic, cinnamic acids, benzyl benzoate, benzoic aldehyde, vanillin and coniferyl benzoate.
    When concentration is needed, it is best to avoid using benzoin oil as it can have a very relaxing effect. and like other essential oils do not use in pregnancy and if epileptic
    Therapeutic properties
    The therapeutic properties of benzoin oil include the following; antiseptic, anti-depressant, astringent, anti-inflammatory, carminative, cordial, deodorant, diuretic, expectorant, sedative and vulnerary.
    Benzoin oil can be used for bronchitis, coughs, colds, wounds, acne, eczema, psoriasis, rheumatism, arthritis, scar tissue, circulation, nervous tension, stress, muscle pains, chilblains, rashes and mouth ulcers.
    Benzoin oil's greatest benefit lies in that it has a calming effect on the nervous and digestive systems, a warming effect on circulation problems and a toning effect on the respiratory tract.

    This clear smelling citrus oil can help lift depression and lighten your mood when feeling blue. It is used to fight cellulite and to tone the skin in general. Lime oil has a sharp, citrus peel smell and is pale yellow to light olive in color. Originally from Asia, it is now cultivated in most warm countries, especially Italy, the West Indies and the Americas. It is an evergreen tree growing up to 4.5 meters (15 feet) high with smooth, green leaves, stiff sharp spines and small, white flowers. The fruit is green and although there are many varieties they usually measure about two inches in diameter. It was introduced into Europe by the Moors and from there it migrated to the Americas. Ships transporting it were called 'lime juicers' and ship crews depended on it to prevent scurvy, because of the high vitamin C content.
    It is used to flavour ginger ale and cola drinks, and also used in the perfume industry.

    Lime oil can be extracted by expression or by distillation - the peel of the unripe skin by cold expression or the peel and /or the whole ripe fruit by steam distillation.
    lime oil is obtained by steam distillation of the fruit rinds and since it is distilled it does not have a phototoxic effect on the skin where by the expressed oil does.
    Chemical composition
    The main constituents in the distilled lime oil, like the one we sell is a-pinene, b-pinene, myrcene, limonene, terpinolene, 1,8-ceneole, linalool, borneol, citral and traces of neral acetate and geranyl acetate.
    Non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing if the oil is obtained by steam extraction, yet the oil obtained from cold expression can cause photosensitivity in strong sunshine and can irritate the skin and as usual do not use in pregnancy and if epileptic.
    Therapeutic properties
    The therapeutic properties of lime oil are antiseptic, antiviral, astringent, aperitif, bactericidal, disinfectant, febrifuge, haemostatic, restorative and tonic.
    Lime oil is useful to cool fevers associated with colds, sore throats and flu and aids the immune system while easing coughs, bronchitis and sinusitis, as well as helping asthma. Lime oil can stimulate and refresh a tired mind and helps with depression.
    It can be helpful for arthritis, rheumatism and poor circulation, as well as for obesity and cellulite and has an astringent and toning action to clear oily skin and acne, and also helps with herpes, insect bites and cuts.

    Lime oil is beneficial to the immune system, easing infection in the respiratory tract and relieving pain in muscles and joints, while revitalizing a tired mind and banishing the feeling of apathy, anxiety and depression.

    I like to use these two essential oils together in a blend, where the Benzoin is relaxing and soothing and good for anxiety. The Lime is uplifting and good for depression, both are great for the respiratory tract especially for sinusitis. Lime essential oil also stimulates the appetite so very helpful when getting over illness or in the case of depression where the appetite was diminished. In a blend for massage I would use a 2% dilution but equally they are effective in a burner


    Although this essential oil is expensive it is one of the best all-purpose oils to have around. It not only fights depression, grief, anger and fear, but looks after your heart and digestive system, while being the most wonderful remedy for female problems especially at the time of the menopause for that is often a time in a woman's life where she looses her self esteem and confidence, Rose has that ability to restore that confidence in her. It is also one of the best oils to use on the skin helping to restore balance but especially good for preventing broken capillaries for as we age, these capillaries become more fragile.

    Rose oil has a deep, rosy, fresh aroma, the color ranges from clear to a pale yellow or greenish tint. The origin of rose oil 'Rosa' comes from the Greek 'roden' meaning 'red', as the ancient rose was thought to have been crimson. Anicenna, the 10th century Persian physician, used the rose as his first plant to distill and a rose distillery existed in 1612 in Shiraz, Persia. Rose petals were scattered at weddings to ensure a happy marriage and are still a symbol of love and purity and are also used to aid meditation and prayer.

    It takes about 60,000 roses (about 180 lb) to make one ounce ( 29.57 ml) of rose otto - or to put in a different way 40,000 kilograms to make 1 liter of rose otto.

    Extraction Rose otto oil is extracted from the fresh flowers, picked before 8 am in the morning, by steam distillation and the yield is 0.02 -0.05 %. The heat used in the distillation process is carefully controlled, as the aroma can be damaged if the heat is too high.

    The chemical composition of rose oil is one of the most complex and contains more than 300 known compounds, yet the main chemical components of rose oil can be listed as -citronellol, phenyl ethanol, geraniol, nerol, farnesol and stearpoten with traces of nonanol, linalool, nonanal, phenyl acetaldehyde, citral, carvone, citronellyl acetate, 2-phenylmenthyl acetate, methyl eugenol, eugenol and rose oxide.

    The therapeutic properties of rose oil are antidepressant, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, choleretic, cicatrisant, depurative, emmenagogue, haemostatic, hepatic, laxative, nervous system sedative, stomachic and a tonic for the heart, liver, stomach and uterus. Rose oil soothes and harmonizes the mind and helps with depression, anger, grief, fear, nervous tension and stress and at the same time addresses sexuality, self-nurturing, self esteem and dealing with emotional problems. It is most helpful for poor circulation and heart problems, which would include heart palpitations, arrhythmia as well as high blood pressure and is also used to boost the liver and gall bladder. For the respiratory system rose oil assists in cases of asthma, coughs and hay fever, and in the digestive system for liver congestion and nausea. Rose oil has a clearing, cleansing, regulating and purifying effect on the female sex organs and can be used for regulating and balancing hormones, irregular menstruation, functional infertility, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, uterine bleeding and other uterine disorders, while having a general toning effect on the uterus. On the skin it is most effective for moisturizing and hydrating the skin, while having a general stimulant and antiseptic action, which is good for all skin types, but especially so for dry, mature and irritated skin. It is used to repair broken capillaries, inflammation as well as skin redness and is useful in eczema and herpes.

    Rose oil gives a feeling of well-being and happiness, it helps a nervous mind, can be helpful for the respiratory tract, for digestive problems, for menstrual problems and in skin care.

    Burners and vaporizers In vapor therapy, rose oil can be helpful with allergies, asthma, baby blues, headaches, migraine, nervous tension and as a relaxant. It is particularly effective to fight depression, anger and grief, while dealing with emotional problems, sadness and loss.
    Blended massage oil or in the bath As a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath, rose oil can help with allergies, baby blues, asthma, hay fever, headaches, depression, migraine, nervous tension, depression, grief, stress, sadness and also to boost poor circulation, calming the heart, stimulating the liver and gall bladder and for general skin toning.
    Lotions and creams When rose oil is included in a cream or lotion, it stimulates the skin, while moisturizing and hydrating, boosting all skin types and being particularly beneficial to dry, mature and sensitive skin. It helps to reduce skin redness, fight inflammations, as well as fix broken capillaries on the skin and also acts as a general skin tonic with its astringent properties.

    One of my favourite skin creme blends is a blend of Rose and Frankincense essential oils to which I add a little of Vitamin E. It makes an ideal blend for mature skin


    Chamomile often grows as a weed and can be seen often at the side of motorways and hedgerows. It has quite a pungent odour, none the less this is a valuable plant. The dried leaves and flowers can be drunk as tea and the dried flowers make it an excellent rinse to enhance blond hair. It is used extensively in herbal medicine and also in Homeopathic medicine making it very safe for babies and small children.

    German chamomile essential oil is extracted from Matricaria chamomilla (M. recutica) of the same family and is also known by the names of blue chamomile, Hungarian chamomile and single chamomile. The Roman chamomile essential oil has a sweet, apple-like fragrance and is very light clear blue in color with a watery viscosity, while the German chamomile oil has a sweet, straw-like fragrance, is dark blue in color and its viscosity is medium.

    Both Roman and German chamomile have excellent calming properties, but Roman chamomile is more effective for irritation, impatience and feeling disagreeable, and has great value in treating PMS and other menstrual and menopausal problems, while German chamomile is superbly effective on the skin, not only to sooth and calm, but to heal and for tissue regeneration.

    German chamomile oil is mostly cultivated in Hungary, Egypt, Eastern Europe and France, while Roman chamomile is cultivated in Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Morocco and France. Roman chamomile is a small perennial herb, with a hairy stem and feathery pinnate leaves, daisy like white flowers (larger than those of German chamomile) and grows about 25 cm high, while German chamomile grows about 60 cm high and has a hairless branching stem, with delicate feathery leaves and simple daisy like white flowers on single stems.

    To the Egyptians it was a herb dedicated to the sun, to cure fevers, and to the moon, for its cooling ability. It was also recognized as a soother of nervous complaints and was used in shampoos, cosmetics and perfumes. German chamomile contains azulene, a powerful anti-inflammatory agent. This blue crystal is not actually present in the plant, but forms in the oil and only a small quantity is needed to be effective. Both chamomile oils are extracted from the flowers by steam distillation, with the Roman chamomile yielding about 1.7 % from fresh flowers and German chamomile yielding about 0.2 - 0.4 %.
    The main chemical components of Roman chamomile oils are a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, y-terpinene, caryophyllene, and propyl angelate and butyl angelate. The main constituents of German chamomile oil are chamazulene, a-bisabolol, bisabolol oxide A, bisabolol oxide B and bisabolone oxide A.

    Precautions Both types of chamomile oil are considered non-toxic and non-irritant, yet since they do have emmenagogue properties when used in high concentrations, they should NOT BE used during pregnancy and likewise by Epileptics

    The therapeutic properties of Roman chamomile oil are analgesic, anti-spasmodic, antiseptic, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, anti-depressant, anti-neuralgic, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, cholagogue, cicatrisant, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hepatic, sedative, nervine, digestive, tonic, sudorific, stomachic, vermifuge and vulnerary.

    The therapeutic properties of German chamomile oil on the other hand are analgesic, anti-allergenic, anti-spasmodic, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antiphlogistic, bactericidal, carminative, cicatrisant, cholagogue, emmenagogue, hepatic, digestive, sedative, stomachic, vermifuge, vasoconstrictor and vulnerary.

    Roman chamomile oil is used for This essential oil can be used with great effect on children when they feel irritable, impatient, teething or colicky. Women find it great to relieve PMS. In general it is good for abdominal pain, gall bladder problems, as well as for throat infections. it furthermore helps to relieve allergies, hay fever and asthma. For the skin, it can be used to calm acne, eczema, rashes, wounds, dermatitis, dry and itchy skin and other allergic conditions in general.

    For babies it can be used in a very diluted form (NO HIGHER THAN 1% DILUTION) to sooth an irritated and teething baby and helps for colic, diarrhea and gastric spasms. It can be added to baby's bath mixed in a little carrier oil  or as a massage after the bath to relax baby ready for sleep. I can assure you babies loved being massaged and my little grandson at a few months old used to hold up his foot for me indicating he wanted a massage.

    German chamomile oil slightly more expensive than the Roman chamomile this essential oil has a calming effect on the mind and body and is excellent in treating any type of inflammation - be that internal or external - and is very effective on urinary stones (bladder gravel) as well. It stimulates the liver and gall bladder, thereby improving digestion and is valuable in treating menstrual and menopausal problems. On the skin, it is a miracle worker and calms red, dry and irritated skin, as well as calming allergies, eczema, psoriasis and all other flaky skin problems. It is high in -(-a)-bisabolol which promotes granulation (healing) and is also a great tissue regenerator.

    Both Roman and German chamomile have calming and relaxing abilities, especially on the nervous and digestive systems, regulating and easing the menstrual cycle. They have soothing and healing influence on the skin, as well as being a potent remedy for inflammatory conditions.

    • Burners and vaporizers Roman chamomile can be used in vapor therapy, for nervous complaints, headaches and migraines.
    • Blended massage oil or in the bath Roman chamomile can be used in a blended massage oil, or diluted in the bath, to assist with allergies, anorexia, addiction, colic, insomnia, back pain, muscle pain, arthritis, post-natal depression and bowel disorders, whereas German chamomile can be used for asthma, measles, mumps, PMS, menopausal symptoms, as well as rheumatism.
    • Lotion and cream Roman chamomile can be used in a cream base for diaper rash, burns and sunburn, while German chamomile is useful in general skincare, especially in treating allergic skin.



    Not only has Neroli great therapeutic properties, but also has the most beutiful smell. It has a greatly relaxing effect on the body and mind, relieving muscle spasms, calming heart palpitations and has a wonderful rejuvenating and regenerative effect on the skin, helping to prevent ugly scarring and fighting stretch marks.
    Neroli oil has a sweet, floral and slightly haunting aroma, the color is pale yellow and the viscosity is watery. It is one of the most expensive essential oils.
    Care must be taken when buying neroli oil, as many suppliers adulterate the oil to increase their profits, as it is a strong smelling oil and even when diluted still has the most incredible smell. The oil sold by us is unadulterated and 100% pure. It is also known as 'orange blossom' and it takes about 1000 lbs. of orange blossoms to make 1 lb. of Neroli oil. The name is said to have originated from the Italian princess, Anne-Marie de la Tremoille (Countess of Nerola) who used the oil as a perfume and to scent her bathwater and gloves. It is still an ingredient for making traditional smelling eau-de-cologne.
    Orange petals are often associated with marriage, purity and brides, as brides traditionally wore orange buds in their hair.
    Neroli oil is extracted from the small, white, waxy flowers of the bitter-orange tree by steam distillation and yields 0.8 - 1 %.

    Chemical composition
    The main chemical components of neroli oil are a-pinene, camphene, b-pinene, a-terpinene, nerol, neryl acetate, farnesol, geraniol, linalool, nerolidol, linalyl acetate, methyl anthranilate and indole.


    Neroli oil is non-toxic, non-sensitizing, non-irritant and non-phototoxic yet must be used sparingly when a sharp clear head is needed, as it can be very relaxing. Again avoid in pregnancy and in epilepsy

    Therapeutic properties

    The therapeutic properties of Neroli oil are antidepressant, antiseptic, anti-infectious, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, carminative, cicatrisant, cytophylactic, cordial, deodorant, digestive, emollient, sedative and tonic.
    Neroli oil is very relaxing and can relieve chronic anxiety, depression, fear, shock and stress and its calming effect can also be beneficial to the digestive tract. It can be used for intestinal spasms, colitis and diarrhea.
    It helps insomnia, and as one of the essential oils with the most sedative effects is useful for treating depression, anxiety and shock and is also effective in calming heart palpitations, treating headaches, neuralgia and vertigo. It can help when a patient is convalescing and is a good general tonic.
    On the skin, neroli oil can help to regenerate skin cells and is a rejuvenating oil useful to prevent ugly scar tissue, promote a smoother skin, fighting stretch marks and broken capillaries. Neroli oil not only smells exquisite, but can also relax and calm the nervous system, the digestive tract and is helpful in skin care.

    • Burners and vaporizers As vapor therapy, neroli oil is useful for insomnia, nervous tension, headaches, vertigo, depression, as well as anxiety and shock.
    • Blended massage oil or in the bath As a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath it helps with insomnia, headaches, neuralgia, nervous tension, heart palpitations, anxiety, depression, colitis, stomach upsets and diarrhea and for boosting the skin.
    • Cream or lotion When used in a cream or lotion is not only fights stretch marks and broken capillaries on the skin, but also prevents ugly scarring. Its action of stimulating cell growth and cellular activity helps it to rejuvenate and regenerate the skin.


    Essential oils are highly concentrated liquids that can be harmful if not used carefully. Implementing aromatherapy into your lifestyle shouldn't cause paranoia or undue worry. By treating essential oils as medicines and following the steps outlined below, you will be well on your way to safely enjoying the many benefits that aromatherapy can offer. These safety guidelines are not a complete safety reference for the proper use of essential oils. When in doubt, consult your physician and/or a qualified and trained aromatherapy practitioner.

    Essential oils should never be used undiluted on the skin. There are instances when experienced aromatherapy users and practitioners make exceptions to this precaution, but only once significant essential oil knowledge is gained should you ever attempt to apply an undiluted oil on the skin. Lavender and tea tree are listed by a large number of aromatherapy sources as being oils that can be used undiluted. Undiluted use of lavender and tea tree, however, should be avoided as severe sensitivity still could occur in some individuals. Again, the safest rule of thumb is to never use any essential oil undiluted.

    Some oils can cause sensitization or allergic reactions in some individuals. When using a new oil for the first time, do a skin patch on a small area of skin. Place a small amount of the diluted essential oil (never use essential oils undiluted on the skin) on the inside of your elbow and apply a bandage. Wait 24 hours to see if there is any form of reaction. Even if a particular essential oil is not known to cause irritation, this step should not be ignored. Even if an oil does not irritate you, it still can irritate someone else. It is important that you always keep that in mind.

    Essential oils should be avoided during pregnancy or by those with asthma, epilepsy, or with some other health conditions. If in doubt always consult a qualified practioner

    Less IS More. When using essential oils, use the smallest amount of essential oils that will get the job done. If one drop will get the job done, for example, don't use two drops.

    Not all essential oils are suitable for use in aromatherapy. Wormood, pennyroyal, onion, camphor, horseradish, wintergreen, rue, bitter almond and sassafras are some of the essential oils that should only be used by qualified aromatherapy practitioners, if ever at all.

    Never let children use essential oils without the presence of an adult knowledgeable about their use. Most essential oils smell wonderful and many essential oils such as citrus oils can smell like they are safe to drink. Keep your essential oils away from children. Treat the oils like medicines that are poison in unknowing hands.

    Essential oils should not be taken internally. Essential oils should only be taken internally after receiving a detailed consultation and prescription from a trained and qualified aromatherapy practitioner.

    Essential oils are flammable. Keep them out of the way of fire hazards.


    Crystals and gemstones are surrounded by mythology

    Crystal therapy works on many different levels - physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual. It is claimed that this gently remove energy imbalances, therefore may ease clients maladies, an in so doing clients may feel balanced, healed, soothed and energized. We are all familiar with the idea of fortune-tellers gazing into crystal balls and foretelling the appearance of tall, dark strangers. However, few of us realise that crystals are actually used by the vast majority of people, every day. Quartz watches, computers, televisions and many conventional medical techniques would not exist without crystals. We base our entire measurement of time upon piezoelectric vibrations from quartz crystal. The scientific theory Piezoelectric currents are tiny electrical charges which are produced when pressure is applied to a specific kind of crystal. Lighters harvest the surge of piezoelectricity into a spark that ignites a flame. Crystals vary their structure when they are subjected to changes in temperature, water levels (hydration) and they even change colour if you alter their electromagnetic field - we use this characteristic in order to see the black figures on the face of a quartz LCD watch. Water levels are also another factor in the way that crystals behave. Crystalline structures are every where - even in the human body. These are found on the surface of cells and in the cell "battery", the mitochondria. If we experience changes in water, electromagnetic field or temperature, then biochemical traffic across the cell membrane can be altered, as well as the energy production capacity of the mitochondria. Crystals can, almost like a lens, "focus" the electromagnetic fields that surround cell membranes and mitochondria. This means that during crystal healing, placing the crystals on nerve clusters usually found around the chakra areas, could lead to significant alterations in the traffic of neurochemical messengers within the nervous system and thus affect bodywide chemistry. Given that emotions are often controlled or varied by our body chemistry - it is easy to see how crystals could even affect our moods.

    Some tumbled Aventurine crystals

    Is an ideal crystal to help you attract good fortune, Aventurine is the best crystal for luck of all kinds, including gambling luck. This green stone has various names, such as "gambler's stone" and "Indian Jade," and because of its reputation as a lucky talisman, is very popular with gamblers. From the Italian per aventura the Aventurine means "by chance." This again is because of its strong association with good luck and chance.

    Like all crystals, the Aventurine has strong healing properties and is used by many people for magical and spiritual purposes.

    The Healing Properties of Aventurine are thought to have universal healing properties over mental, physical and emotional aspects and is linked to the heart Chakra and so helps particularly well with regeneration, such as after heart surgery or heart attacks. Like Rose Quartz Aventurine is beneficial for healing where matters of the heart are concerned, such as heartbreak, loss and separation. Beneficial more matters of the heart if used together with Rose Quartz

    This crystal is good in spell work and rituals linked to financial good luck, general good luck, healing and purifying, and for attracting good fortune and abundance. It is also known to help in promoting confidence, developing one's creative side, and developing leadership abilities. Though Citrine is also a good crystal for attracting financial benefits

    In Spiritual Purposes this Aventurine crystal has important spiritual purposes. It is an ideal crystal for promoting balance and calm and so is particularly effective for meditations. It is well known in its ability to calm anxiety and reduce the possibility of panic and panic attacks. It is also known to regulate the heart rhythm, strengthen resolve and motivation, and also helps to reveal inner secrets such as what makes you really happy and what makes you sad. Significantly, this crystal can induce psychic dreams, provide glimpses of the future, answer questions, and increase psychic powers.

    AMETRINE is a rare and unusual stone which occurs in quartz when amethyst and citrine reside in the same crystal. Because the color zoning effect is natural, no two ametrines will ever be exactly alike. Ametrine being a combination of amethyst and citrine, two stones which are in many ways opposite in characteristics. Yet opposing does not mean incompatible, as we see when we look at the colors of these two stones. Amethyst's purple and citrine's yellow are opposite each other on the color wheel; yet are called complementary, meaning that they enhance each other, and are considered by artists to be excellent colors to use together.We can find this same kind of complementary relationship in the properties of citrine and amethyst. Citrine relates to the third chakra, which is associated with self-esteem and personal power. Citrine helps us to balance these energies so that self-esteem isn't inflated into egotism, nor personal power turned into domination of others.

    Amethyst is one of the sixth-chakra stones. The sixth chakra relates to going within, to intuition, psychic development, and dreams. It is an energy center which is connected to the transition from ordinary consciousness to a deeper spiritual awareness, and amethyst is the principal stone used to assist in this transition. With this background, we can see that ametrine can be the ideal stone for someone who wants to:

    • have self-confidence in the sense of valuing his/her uniqueness and particular purpose
    • develop and use personal power for the greater good, and especially for spiritual reasons
    • appreciate that we exist in a perpetual dance between physical and spiritual realities

    Ametrine is very helpful in getting rid of depression. This leads to inner peace and tranquility. Many believe that it contains the powers of amethyst and citrine in one stone, making it a very powerful money stone as well as an excellent via to higher psychic awareness and spiritual enlightenment. Ametrine is among an elite group of gems, because as of now there is just one source of this treasure in the world.

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    I am often asked various questions pertaining to the spirit world and various aspects of the psychic, here are some of them: I will in time feature more questions and answers as this webpage evolves

    Q. Is a psychic or medium a fortune teller?
    A. It may surprise you to know psychics and mediums are not fortune tellers
    Q. Is it possible to forecast the future?
    A.Well not 100% and this is because of free will.
    Q. What is free will?
    A. Free will is YOUR right to decide what you want to do about a situation, it is a choice
    Q. How does free will affect a situation?
    A. Well before we incarnate as Spirit in a human body, we decide on what experiences and challenges that will benefit our spiritual growth. However we are given the choice (free will) as to whether we go through with the experience or challenge. In effect we are allowed to change or mind.
    Q. So are you saying we all know what lies before us?
    A. Well in a way we all do. Remember we are 'Spirit' in a human body and your spirit does retain a memory but it is deep in our subconscious. This memory is retained deeply for a reason to help us fulfill our experiences and challenges we ourselves chose. However it is also at this deep level so we are not so aware. If you knew what lay before you would you go through with it? Probably not but we still retain this memory deeply and this reflects in our Aura.
    Q. So what is the Aura?
    A.The aura is The Aura is an electromagnetic field that surrounds living bodies, this includes people, animals, plants and crystals and is composed of several layers that are constantly moving. The Aura links us to whats known as Universal energy i.e. that is all the knowledge in the Universe past, present and future. It is on this aura that psychics are able to tap into and access your past, whats going on in the present and the possible future and I say possible specifically if your goal or desire is dependent on other people, for remember every person involved in a situation has free will.